Supplements for Hashimoto's disease

Incorporating a well-designed supplement protocol can significantly enhance the healing journey for individuals with Hashimoto’s disease, especially patients dealing with impaired digestion.

Hypothyroidism can be a contributing factor to weak digestion due to reduced stomach acid production. Stomach acid, primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), plays a critical role in several stages of digestion.

A deficiency in stomach acid due to Hashimoto’s disease can disrupt these processes.

In Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism, the underproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to a condition called hypochlorhydria, where the stomach produces less hydrochloric acid (HCL) than normal.

This can lead to issues such as:

1. Impaired Protein Breakdown

Proteins are large molecules that need to be broken down into smaller components for proper absorption and utilization by the body.

Stomach acid performs two key functions in protein digestion:

• Activation of Pepsin: Pepsin, a digestive enzyme produced in the stomach, requires an acidic environment to become active.

Low stomach acid can hinder pepsin activation, leading to incomplete protein breakdown into smaller peptides.

Thus, a lack of stomach acidity decreases the rate of protein absorption.

• Denaturation of Proteins: Stomach acid helps unfold the complex structure of proteins, making them more accessible to pepsin and other digestive enzymes for further breakdown.

2. Nutrient Malabsorption

Several essential nutrients require an acidic environment in the stomach for optimal absorption. These include:

• Iron: Stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) plays a vital role in converting non-heme iron into a form that is absorbable by the body.

This conversion process involves reducing iron (Fe3+) to a more soluble form (Fe2+) that the intestines can absorb efficiently.

• Calcium: While stomach acid itself isn’t required for calcium absorption, it enhances the solubility of calcium salts in the stomach.

This improved solubility ensures that calcium ions are readily available for absorption in the intestines.

• Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 binds to a protein called intrinsic factor, which is produced by the parietal cells in the stomach.

Stomach acid is essential for releasing vitamin B12 from the protein complex it forms with intrinsic factor.

Once released, vitamin B12 can then bind to receptors in the small intestine for absorption into the bloodstream.

3. Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

The stomach normally acts as a barrier against harmful bacteria entering the small intestine.

Stomach acid creates a harsh environment that can kill or inhibit the growth of these bacteria.

Low stomach acid can create a less acidic environment, allowing these harmful bacteria to survive and potentially overgrow in the small intestine.

This overgrowth can lead to:

• Bloating and gas: The overgrowth of bacteria can lead to the production of excess gas, which can cause bloating and discomfort.

• Abdominal pain: The gas and fermentation caused by the bacteria can result in cramping and abdominal pain.

• Diarrhea: The imbalance of bacteria can disrupt normal digestion and absorption processes, leading to diarrhea.

• Nutrient deficiencies due to competition with bacteria for nutrients: The bacteria can compete with the body for nutrients, leading to deficiencies.

All diseases begin in the gut.


In this article, we will mention some of the most important supplements for dealing with Hashimoto’s disease, focusing especially on the gut.

We will cover key categories such as digestive aids, vitamins, minerals, trace elements, and probiotics to ensure a comprehensive approach to managing the condition.

Before we start though, there are certain things you need to keep in mind with regards to supplementation.

This applies to taking dietary supplements in general, regardless of your goals.

Guidelines for Proper Supplementation

1. Start Slowly

Always introduce supplements gradually, starting with low doses and increasing slowly.

This approach minimizes the risk of adverse reactions and allows for the identification of any specific supplements causing negative effects.

2. Quality Matters

Not all supplements are created equal.

The supplement industry lacks the stringent regulations imposed on pharmaceuticals, leading to variability in ingredient quality and dosage accuracy.

Supplements may contain undisclosed substances or improper dosages, which can pose health risks.

Hence, selecting high-quality, reputable brands is crucial to ensure safety and efficacy.

3. Supplement Isoforms and Bioavailability

The formulation of supplements can significantly impact their bioavailability.

As an example, zinc picolinate is more bioavailable than zinc oxide, enhancing its absorption and utilization by the body.

Similarly, taking supplements with specific co-factors, like vitamin C with zinc or iron, can improve their uptake.

4. Importance of Adherence

Taking supplements consistently, also known as adherence, is crucial for maximizing their effectiveness.

Many supplements work by gradually optimizing your body’s processes.

Skipping doses can disrupt this process and delay the potential benefits.

Additionally, supplement effectiveness can be influenced by dosage and timing.

Taking the right amount at the recommended time ensures you’re getting the intended benefits.

Misunderstandings about dosages, timing, and interactions with specific foods or substances can hinder benefits.

As an example, thyroid hormones should be taken on an empty stomach, away from iron, calcium, and magnesium.

Using tools like pill planners and reminders can improve adherence and ensure supplements are taken correctly.

Top Supplements For Hashimoto’s Disease

Conventional Treatment of Hashimoto's

Digestive Aids

Betaine with Pepsin

• Function: Betaine HCl (hydrochloride) with Pepsin is a combination supplement designed to support healthy protein digestion.

Betaine HCl provides additional hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the stomach.

This creates a more acidic environment, mimicking the natural state of a healthy stomach.

More specifically:

I. Protein Unfolding (Denaturation): An acidic stomach is crucial for protein denaturation.

This process unfolds the complex structures of proteins, making them more accessible to the action of digestive enzymes, such as proteases.

II. Pepsin Activation: Pepsin, a proteolytic digestive enzyme produced in the stomach, needs an acidic environment to become active.

Betaine HCl helps activate pepsin, allowing it to efficiently break down proteins into smaller peptides (amino acid chains).

Smaller peptides are easier for the small intestine to absorb and utilize.

• Usage: Take with meals containing protein, ideally at the beginning of the meal to coincide with the initial stages of digestion.

This timing allows Betaine HCl to be present when the stomach receives protein and can optimize its effectiveness.

Consult a healthcare professional for the appropriate dosage based on your individual needs.

They can consider factors like your age, underlying health conditions, and any medications you’re taking.

Digestive Enzymes

• Function: Digestive enzymes are a group of specialized proteins produced by the pancreas and the small intestine.

They act as biological catalysts, breaking down complex food molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) into simpler forms that can be readily absorbed by the intestines and utilized by the body for energy and other physiological functions.

• Importance in Hashimoto’s: Individuals with Hashimoto’s may experience lower stomach acid production (hypochlorhydria) due to decreased thyroid function.

This can hinder the activation and effectiveness of digestive enzymes naturally produced in the stomach, particularly pepsin, which breaks down proteins.

Enzymes that break down proteins into smaller units, such as peptides and amino acids, are called proteases.

• Benefits of Supplementation: A broad-spectrum digestive enzyme blend can address this potential deficiency by providing additional enzymes, including:

I. Amylase: Amylase is a digestive enzyme produced by both the salivary glands in our mouth and the pancreas.

It plays a crucial role in the first stage of carbohydrate digestion, breaking down complex carbohydrates (starches and some sugars) into simpler sugars that our body can readily absorb and utilize for energy.

Amylase’s activity ensures our body can absorb and utilize carbohydrates for energy, maintain blood sugar levels, and access other nutrients present in carbohydrate-rich foods.

II. Lipase: Lipase is a digestive enzyme produced by the pancreas and also found in small amounts in our saliva.

It plays a critical role in fat digestion by breaking down triglycerides, the main form of fat found in our diet, into fatty acids and glycerol.

This breakdown is essential for fat and fat-soluble vitamin absorption, providing the body with energy and building blocks for cell membranes.

III. Protease: Proteases are a group of digestive enzymes responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller components.

These enzymes play a crucial role in protein digestion, working alongside pepsin, another digestive enzyme produced in the stomach.

Proper protein digestion by proteases is essential for optimal absorption of essential amino acids from food.

IV. Lactase: Lactase is a digestive enzyme produced by the small intestine. Its primary function is to break down lactose, a sugar molecule found naturally in milk and other dairy products.

Lactose is a disaccharide, meaning it’s composed of two simpler sugars: glucose and galactose. In most individuals, the production of lactase in the small intestine declines with age, leading to a condition called lactose intolerance.

This means the body doesn’t produce enough lactase to efficiently break down lactose from dairy products.

When lactose isn’t broken down properly, it stays undigested and travels to the large intestine.

There, gut bacteria ferment the lactose, producing gas (hydrogen, methane) and causing various digestive discomforts.

V. Cellulase: Cellulase is a digestive enzyme that specifically targets cellulose, a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls.

Humans lack the enzymes needed to break down cellulose on their own.

By breaking down cellulose into simpler sugars, cellulase allows for better digestion and absorption of nutrients.

• Usage: Take digestive enzymes with meals, ideally at the beginning, to coincide with the initial stages of digestion.

Start with a low dose and gradually increase as needed to find the optimal amount for your individual needs.

This helps your body adjust and minimize any potential digestive discomfort.

Look for high-quality enzyme blends with adequate activity levels of each enzyme listed.


• Function: L-glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid circulating in our blood (plasma).

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, but L-glutamine has additional functions beyond protein synthesis. Specifically:

I. Fueling Intestinal Cells: L-glutamine serves as a major energy source for intestinal enterocytes. These are the cells that line our small intestine and are responsible for nutrient absorption.

II. Supporting Gut Integrity: By fueling enterocytes, L-glutamine helps maintain the health and strength of the intestinal lining.

This lining acts as a barrier, protecting our body from harmful substances and pathogens that might be present in our gut.

III. Boosting Gut Immunity: L-glutamine also plays a role in supporting the immune function of the gut mucosa, the mucous membrane lining our intestines.

A healthy gut immune system helps defend against harmful bacteria and promotes overall gut health.

• Usage: L-glutamine supplements are typically available in powder form, which can be mixed into beverages like water or juice.

The recommended dosage can vary widely depending on individual needs and health conditions. It typically ranges from 5 to 20 grams per day.

Lower doses (around 5 grams) are typically used for general health maintenance, while higher doses (up to 20 grams) for specific health conditions, usually under the guidance of a healthcare professional.


Vitamin D

• Function: Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are found throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

These receptors are proteins that bind to vitamin D, allowing it to exert its effects on various cells and tissues within the digestive system.

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier.

The intestinal barrier is a protective layer that prevents harmful substances, such as pathogens and toxins, from entering the bloodstream while allowing the absorption of nutrients.

A deficiency in vitamin D can weaken this barrier, leading to increased intestinal permeability, often referred to as “leaky gut.”

This condition can result in the passage of unwanted substances into the bloodstream, potentially causing inflammation and other health issues.

Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to gut dysbiosis, which refers to an imbalance in the composition of the gut microbiome.

Gut dysbiosis can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders and impact overall health.

Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D can help support a more balanced gut microbiome.

• Usage: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, so for improved absorption, it’s best taken with meals containing fat.

A typical dose of 1,000-5,000 IU daily is usually recommended, although individual needs may vary based on serum levels.

The recommended levels for serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) are typically measured in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or nanomoles per liter (nmol/L).

Levels below 30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) indicate a deficiency and typically require supplementation.

Levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or higher are considered sufficient for most healthy adults for general health and bone health.

Some research shows that autoimmune patients need higher levels of vitamin D compared to the general population to achieve optimal immune function and manage their disease better.

For example, diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied in relation to vitamin D levels.

Higher vitamin D levels are often associated with improved symptoms and disease management in these conditions.

However, there is no single, universally accepted recommendation for autoimmune patients.

Vitamin B12

• Function: Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B complex group.

It serves several important functions within the human body:

I. Red Blood Cell Formation: Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells (erythropoiesis).

Deficiency can lead to a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia, characterized by large, abnormally formed red blood cells.

II. Neurological Function: Vitamin B12 plays a critical role in maintaining the health of our nervous system. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause various neurological symptoms like numbness, tingling, and even dementia in severe cases.

III. DNA Synthesis: Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of DNA, the genetic blueprint for our cells.

• Malabsorption and Risk of Deficiency:

I. Malabsorption: This occurs when our body has difficulty absorbing nutrients from food in our gut. Several factors can contribute to malabsorption, including chronic illnesses and certain medications.

II. Achlorhydria and Vitamin B12: Achlorhydria refers to a condition where the stomach produces little or no hydrochloric acid (a major component of stomach acid).

Low stomach acid can hinder the absorption of vitamin B12 from food.

People with chronic achlorhydria (long-term low stomach acid) are at a higher risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency.

• Usage: Sublingual forms of vitamin B12 offer improved absorption, especially for individuals with impaired digestion, because they bypass the digestive system.

They typically come in tinctures, tablets, or lozenges that dissolve under the tongue.

This allows vitamin B12 to enter the bloodstream directly through the mucosal tissues in the mouth, bypassing the digestive system.

For individuals with impaired digestion or at risk of malabsorption, sublingual vitamin B12 is a viable option as it avoids the digestive hurdles that can hinder absorption.

Vitamin E

• Function: Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin.

This means it dissolves in fat and plays a crucial role in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Free radicals are chemically unstable molecules produced by various natural physiologic processes in the body and the environment.

They can damage cell membranes, contributing to the development of chronic diseases.

By neutralizing free radicals, vitamin E acts as a cellular bodyguard, helping to maintain cell health and function.

Some studies also suggest that vitamin E helps reduce inflammation in the body.

Additionally, it has been proposed that vitamin E might play a role in supporting a healthy immune system.

• Usage: A common daily dose of vitamin E is 400 IU (International Units).

However, it’s important to note that individual needs may vary.

Vitamin E is fat-soluble, which means it gets absorbed better when taken with a meal containing fat.

The fat helps the body absorb the vitamin E in the gut.

Consulting a healthcare professional is usually recommended for determining the most appropriate dosage for vitamin E and avoiding potential interactions with medications or other supplements.

Minerals and Trace Elements


• Function: Selenium is a trace mineral, meaning our body only needs small amounts, but it still plays a significant role in overall health, especially thyroid function.

Selenium is a vital component of enzymes called iodothyronine deiodinases.

These enzymes are responsible for converting inactive thyroid hormone (T4) into its active form (T3).

T3 is the form our body needs for various functions like regulating metabolism, growth, and development.

In autoimmune thyroiditis, specifically Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland.

Selenium has been shown to help in such contexts by reducing thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb).

These are antibodies that target an enzyme involved in thyroid hormone production called thyroid peroxidase (TPO).

This enzyme plays a crucial role in synthesizing thyroid hormones within the thyroid gland.

Lowering TPOAb levels contributes to improved thyroid function.

Hence, selenium is considered one of the most important supplements for people dealing with Hashimoto’s disease.

• Usage: A typical dose of selenium is 200-400 micrograms (mcg) per day.

This is a general range, and the appropriate amount for each person may vary depending on his/her individual needs and health status.

Some people need less than 200 mcg.

Selenium gets absorbed better when taken with a fat-containing meal as it’s primarily fat-soluble.

The fat in the meal acts as a carrier, helping the digestive system to absorb selenium.


• Function: Zinc is a trace mineral that is crucial for the proper functioning of the immune system.

It plays a role in the development and activation of immune cells, such as T-lymphocytes (T-cells) and macrophages.

Adequate zinc levels help the body fight off infections and maintain a robust immune response.

Zinc is also important for wound healing due to its role in cell division and protein synthesis.

It aids in the repair and regeneration of tissues, making it essential for the healing process of cuts, wounds, and other injuries.

Additionally, zinc is involved in the conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone T4 (thyroxine) into the active form T3 (triiodothyronine).

This conversion is critical for maintaining proper thyroid function, which regulates metabolism, energy levels, hormonal balance, and other aspects of human physiology.

• Usage: Zinc supplements are best taken with food to enhance absorption and reduce the likelihood of gastrointestinal discomfort, such as nausea, which can occur when zinc is taken on an empty stomach.

Zinc picolinate is one of the most bioavailable forms of zinc, meaning it is easily absorbed and utilized by the body.

This form is often recommended by healthcare professionals or nutritionists for those who need to increase their zinc intake through supplementation.


• Function: Magnesium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that acts as a cofactor for more than 300+ enzymatic reactions in the body.

These reactions are crucial for various physiological functions, including:

I. Muscle and Nerve Function: Magnesium is involved in neuromuscular transmission and muscle contraction.

It helps regulate muscle function and supports the proper functioning of nerves.

II. Blood Sugar Control: Magnesium plays a role in glucose metabolism and insulin regulation.

Adequate magnesium levels are important for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

III. Bone Health: Magnesium contributes to bone formation and maintenance.

It helps in the absorption and metabolism of calcium and vitamin D, which are vital for bone health and density.

• Usage: The most bioavailable form of magnesium supplement is generally considered to be magnesium glycinate.

This form is highly absorbed by the body and has several advantages compared to other forms, including:

I. High Absorption: Magnesium glycinate is chelated, meaning the magnesium is bound to the amino acid glycine, which enhances its absorption in the intestines.

II. Gentle on the Stomach: It is less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea, which are more common with other forms of magnesium like magnesium oxide.

III. Calming Effect: Glycine is an amino acid known for its calming effects on the body.

It acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), which means it can help promote relaxation and improve sleep quality.

Other highly bioavailable forms of magnesium include:

I. Magnesium Citrate: Also well-absorbed and often used to alleviate constipation due to its mild laxative effect.

II. Magnesium Malate: Highly absorbable and can be particularly beneficial for people with chronic pain or fatigue, as malic acid (to which it is bound) plays a role in energy production.

III. Magnesium Threonate: Known for its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), making it beneficial for cognitive functions and brain health.

IV. Magnesium Chloride: Easily absorbed and often used in topical applications, like magnesium oil.

Note: The best form of magnesium for you depends on your specific health needs and any advice or recommendations you get from your qualified healthcare provider.

When it comes to dosing magnesium supplements, it is important to consider individual needs, dietary intake, and any specific health conditions. Here’s a general guide to magnesium dosing:

• Adult Men: 400-420 mg per day

• Adult Women: 310-320 mg per day

• Pregnant Women: 350-360 mg per day

• Lactating Women: 310-320 mg per day

• Children: Dosages vary by age and should be determined by a healthcare provider.


High-Potency Probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms, often referred to as “good” or “beneficial” bacteria, that help maintain or restore the natural balance of bacteria in the gut.

They support a healthy gut microbiome, which is crucial for optimal digestive health.

A balanced gut microbiome is essential for various aspects of human health and physiology, including digestion, nutrient absorption, and protection against harmful pathogens.

Probiotics help maintain this balance by populating the gut with beneficial bacteria.

By supporting a healthy gut microbiome, probiotics can improve digestive function, alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and prevent or reduce the severity of diarrhea, including that caused by antibiotics (antibiotic-associated diarrhea).

Probiotics can also influence the immune system by enhancing the production of antibodies, improving the activity of certain immune cells, and promoting a balanced immune response.

This can help protect against infections and reduce the risk of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Chronic inflammation is associated with various health conditions, including digestive disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Probiotics can help reduce inflammation by producing anti-inflammatory compounds (i.e., SCFAs) and promoting a healthy balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals in the gut.


• Start with a Low Dose: When beginning probiotic supplementation, it is recommended to start with a low dose, such as 10 billion colony-forming units (CFUs) per day.

This allows the gut to gradually adapt to the introduction of new bacteria, minimizing potential side effects such as gas, bloating, constipation, and mild digestive discomfort.

• Gradually Increase to Therapeutic Levels: Based on individual tolerance and needs, the dosage of probiotics can be gradually increased to therapeutic levels.

This may range up to 60 billion CFUs or more per day.

Higher doses are often used for specific health conditions (i.e., IBS, IBD, AAD, etc.) or to achieve more pronounced benefits.

• Individual Tolerance and Needs: The optimal dose of probiotics can vary widely between individuals.

Factors such as age, health status, specific health goals, and the presence of any gastrointestinal conditions can influence the required dose.

It is important to monitor how your body responds to probiotic supplementation and adjust the dose accordingly.

Sample Supplement Protocol



• Form: Magnesium Glycinate

• Dosage: 200 – 400 mg

• Timing: With breakfast

• Benefits: Supports muscle and nerve function, reduces inflammation, and promotes relaxation.


• Form: Zinc Picolinate

• Dosage: 15-40 mg

• Timing: With breakfast

• Benefits: Supports immune function, aids in the conversion of T4 to T3 thyroid hormone, and promotes wound healing.

Vitamin D

• Form: Vitamin D3

• Dosage: 2000-5000 IU (based on blood test results)

• Timing: With breakfast

• Benefits: Enhances immune function, supports thyroid health, and promotes bone health.


L- Glutamine

• Form: L-Glutamine Powder

• Dosage: 5 grams

• Timing: Mid-morning or mid-afternoon, mixed into water or a beverage.

• Benefits: Supports intestinal health and barrier function, promotes a healthy gut lining, and aids in immune function.


Magnesium (Optional Additional Dose)

• Form: Magnesium Glycinate

• Dosage: 200 – 400 mg

• Timing: Before bed

• Benefits: Promotes relaxation and sleep quality.

High-Potency Probiotics

• Form: Multi-strain Probiotics (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains)

• Dosage: Start with 10 billion CFUs and gradually increase to 30-60 billion CFUs as tolerated

• Timing: With dinner

• Benefits: Supports a healthy gut microbiome, enhances digestive health, modulates the immune system, and reduces inflammation.

Additional Recommendations

• Diet: Follow a balanced, anti-inflammatory diet rich in whole foods – vegetables, fruits, quality proteins, and healthy fats, such as Paleo or Autoimmune Paleo (AIP).

Avoid gluten, dairy, and soy, as these can exacerbate autoimmune symptoms.

• Hydration: Drink plenty of water with added electrolytes throughout the day.

• Exercise: Engage in regular, moderate exercise to support overall health and wellness, and reduce stress.

• Stress Management: Incorporate stress-reducing activities such as yoga, meditation, nature walks, or deep-breathing exercises.

Monitoring and Adjustments

• Blood Tests: Regularly monitor thyroid function (TSH, T4, T3, Free T4, Free T3, TPOAb, TgAb) and vitamin D levels.

• Symptom Tracking: Keep a journal to track symptoms, side effects, and improvements.

• Healthcare Consultation: Regularly consult with a healthcare provider to adjust dosages and supplements as needed based on progress and test results.

This protocol aims to support thyroid function, reduce inflammation, promote gut health, and enhance overall well-being in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Always tailor supplementation to your individual needs and conditions with the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.


Supplements play a pivotal role in the management of Hashimoto’s disease, particularly when the patient has reached a hypothyroid stage.

Gradual introduction, attention to quality, choosing the right isoforms, and adherence to a structured supplement regimen are key to maximizing the benefits of dietary supplements.

A holistic approach to thyroid healing, combined with a tailored diet, can significantly improve health outcomes for individuals dealing with Hashimoto’s disease.

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This content is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of such advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Metabolic Body nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement, or lifestyle program.